* 28.02.1884 in Tuhalaane rural municipality, Viljandi County
Head of State (Elder of State)
In 1917-1919 member of the Estonian Foreign Mission in St. Petersburg and in London, participated in the Paris Peace Conference. 1919 Assistant to the Minister of Foreign Affairs, 1919-1920 Member of the Estonian delegation in the peace negotiations between Estonia and the Soviet Russia. In 1920, the diplomatic representative the Republic of Estonia in Great Britain. 1920-1921 while Elder of State, also the Minister of War. Minister of Foreign Affairs 1921-1922, 1925-1926, 1933 and 1939-1940, 1923-1925 the Ambassador of Estonia to the United States of America. 1917-1918 member of the Estonian Province Assembly (Eesti Maanõukogu), 1919-1920 member of the Constituent Assembly (Asutav Kogu), 1920-1923 member of the Riigikogu, and 1938-1940 member of the Riigivolikogu (second chamber of the Riigikogu 1938-1940).
Studied at the Teachers’ Seminar in Kuldiga (Goldingen, today in Latvia). 1903-1905 a parish clerk and schoolteacher at Aluksne (Alulinn, Marienburg, today in Latvia), also a teacher in the Emperor Nikolai Greek Orthodox Parish School in Kuressaare in 1905-1906, in the Kuressaare Marine School in 1906-1912, and in the Janson Merchant School in St. Petersburg in 1913-1915. Took his High School exams at the Kuressaare State High School, studied at the law department of the St. Petersburg University in 1908-1913, took additional courses in the Berlin University in 1912, received a scientific scholarship from the St. Petersburg University in 1913-1916.
In 1917 a private Assistant Professor in the St. Petersburg University and an official in the Department of Nations of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, in 1916-1917 in service of the General Court Administration of the Russian Ministry of Justice as a military official. In 1906-1907 editor of the paper “Hääl” (The Voice) in Kuressaare. In 1923, Editor-in-Chief of the “Vaba Maa”. Solicitor in 1914-1923, barrister in 1923-1940, Acting Professor of International Law in Tartu University in 1919-1924, Professor of International Law 1924-1940, Chairman of the University’s Academic Court in 1930-1939, visiting lecturer in California University in 1932. Member of the Tartu Municipal Council 1930-1940, Chairman of the Council 1935-1938.
One of the founders of the Kuressaare Loan and Savings Society, Chairman of the Saaremaa Teachers’ Union and the Estonian Child Protection Society. Chairman of the Estonian Society of the League of Nations (1937-1940 the Society of Foreign Relations) in 1922-1940. In 1929- 1940 President of the Tartu French Academic Institute, 1929-1940 Chairman of the Pan- European Society, 1930-1938 assistant to the Chief of the Young Eagles, Chairman to the Estonian-Latvian Society in 1932-1940, the Academic Law Society in 1932-1940, Bureau for the Co-operation of the Baltic Countries in 1935-1937, the Estonian Committee of the International Commission for Intellectual Co-operation, member of the Arbitrary Commission of Finland and the United States of North America (1929-1940) and that of Estonia and the United States of North America (1930- 1940), and Chairman of the Greece-United States of North America Arbitrary Commission). Has been Member of the Boards of the “Vaba Maa” Ltd and the Bank of Tartu, Chairman of the Commission for the solving of the conflicts between employers and employees in 1935-1938, etc.)
Cross of Freedom III/1, 1939, Honorary citizen of the Tuhalaane rural municipality.
Papers on Constitutional, international, business law etc.
Imprisoned by the NKVD (People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs, here the Soviet State Secret Police) on 30.06.1941, died in prison camp.
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