* 05.09.1871 in the Kaubi cattle breeding estate, Kaubi rural municipality, Pärnu County
1922-1923 Ambassador of Estonia to Finland, 1923-1924, 1926-1927 and 1936-1938, Minister of Foreign Affairs, 1928-1934 Estonian Ambassador in Stockholm and in 1934-1936 in Berlin. 1923-1929, member of II and III Riigikogu, 1938-1940, Member of the Riiginõukogu (the second Chamber of the Estonian Parliament 1938-1940).
Finished the High School of the Livonian Province in Tartu, studied in the department of medicine of Tartu University in 1892-1897.
Was an assistant in the Tartu University Clinic in 1897-1898, 1898-1899 and 1901-1902 a doctor in the Reimers ophthalmology clinic in Riga, 1899-1901 a doctor in the Ujazdov hospital in Warsaw, in 1901 studied in Berlin, Prague and Leipzig. 1902-1904 and 1905-1912 a private ophthalmologist in Tallinn, in 1907 one of the founders of the Private Clinic of Estonian Physicians, 1912 founded his own eye clinic. 1904- 1905 was in the Russia-Japan war as a physician. Has also been a member and a chairman of the Tallinn Municipal Council, and the Honorary Justice of the Peace in the Tallinn- Haapsalu Peace Council.
Was a member the Board of the Northern Baltic Union of Physicians and the Tallinn Popular Education society, Chairman of the sports society “Kalev”, building society of “Estonia” theatre and the Estonian Society “Estonia” in Tallinn, Member and Chairman of the Council and member of the Board of the Tallinn Loan and Savings Society, later the Tallinn “Krediitpank” (Credit Bank), 1920-1922 secular Vice President of the Consistory of the Estonian Evangelical Lutheran Church, 1927-1932 Estonia's representative in the International Olympics Committee.
17.10.1940 was imprisoned by the NKVD (People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs, here the Soviet State Secret Police), shot in Tallinn on 03.07.1941.
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