* 01.10.1911 in the Krootuse (Kõlleste) rural municipality in the Võru CountyPrime Minister in duties of the President
1953-1971 State Secretary, 1971-1990 Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of War of the Estonian Exile Government.
Studied in Võru, graduated from the Teachers' Seminar of Tartu. In 1933-1938 studied at the legal department of Tartu University.
In 1938-1940 elementary school teacher. In 1940 solicitor to the barrister P. Sepp in Tartu, in 1941-1943 a solicitor in Tallinn. In 1940, after the occupation of Estonia was a secretary of Tartu University for a short period, left on the recommendation of the rector H. Kruus. In 1940, put up a candidacy for the Riigivolikogu elections as an alternative candidate to the Estonian Working People's Union, was deleted from the list of candidates. Later hid in Estonia, escaped to Finland in 1943, was one of the organisers of the Estonian Bureau (an Estonian exile organisation) and assistant to the Editor-in-Chief of the "Malevlane" (a newspaper of the Estonians in the Finnish Army).
In 1944 moved to Sweden, was an assistant at the National Committee of Foreigners. In 1945- 1956, was Chairman of the education working group of the Estonian Committee, 1954-1975 Director of the Bureau and assistant Chairman of the Estonian Committee, 1975-1982 Chairman of the Estonian Committee, from 1982 Honorary Chairman of the Estonian Committee. In 1951-1979 Secretary-General of the Estonian National Council.
In 1998 Honorary Doctor of Law of Tartu University. Honorary Member of the Estonian Literature Society, Golden Badge of the Estonian National Foundation, the I Class Gold Order of Merit of the Republic of Poland, the II Class Order of the Coat of Arms of the Republic of Estonia.
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