* 16.01.1870 Karula (later Uue-Võidu) rural municipality in the Viljandi County
1917 assistant to the Commissar of Estonian Province, 1917-1918 member and Assistant Chairman of the Estonian Province Assembly (Eesti Maanõukogu), 1918 General Commissioner of the Provisional Government for taking over property from the German occupation powers, 1918-1920 Minister of Justice of the Provisional Government and the Government of the Republic. In 1920-1932, member of the I-IV Riigikogu. 1926-1940 President of the Bank of Estonia, 1935-1938 member of the National Economic Council, 1938-1940 Member of the Riiginõukogu (first chamber of the Riigikogu in 1938-1940).
Studied in H. Treffner's Private High School and 1892-1896 in the legal department of Tartu University, graduated with the 1st degree diploma (simple graduation).
1897-1901 was a solicitor in Viljandi, 1901-1902 in Riga. In 1902-1914 a barrister in Riga. In 1915-1919, member of the Board of the Tallinn City Bank (Tallinna Linnapank).
WIn 1898-1901 Chairman of the Viljandi Farmers' Society and the society “Koit” (Dawn), Chairman of the Estonian Abstinence Society in Riga, in 1902-1905 also Chairman of the Estonian Society “Imanta” in Riga, 1906-1914 Chairman of the Estonian Education and Assistance Society in Riga, In 1904-1920 member and chairman of the Curate Council of the Emperor Alexander Estonian High School (founded on the private initiative of the Estonian societies), 1915-1919 Chairman of the Central Society of the North Estonian Farmers, chairman of the Council of the Tallinn Economic Union. In 1936, founded a personal foundation for supporting of the pupils of the H. Treffner's Private High School in Tartu (20 000 kroons).
14.06.1941 was imprisoned by the NKVD (People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs, here the Soviet State Secret Police), taken to Russia, sentenced to death and shot.
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