* 28.05.1888 in Vesneri rural municipality, Tartu County
1919-1920 State Auditor, 1920, 1921-1924 and 1924-1926 Minister of Internal Affairs, was the founder of Estonian Police. 1926-1934 (intermittently) Chairman of the III, IV and V Riigikogu. 1934-1938 Minister of Internal Affairs, 1938-1939 Prime Minister. 1919-1920 Member of the Constituent Assembly (Asutav Kogu), 1920-1934/1937 member of the I-V Riigikogu, 1938- 1940 member of the Riigivolikogu (second chamber of the Riigikogu 1938-1940).
Finished the H. Treffner's Private High School, in 1909-1914 studied in the legal department of Tartu University, graduated at the Moscow University.
In 1914-1917 in World War I, 1917- 1918 commander of the 5th battery of the 1st Estonian Artillery Regiment. In 1918-1919 Commander of the Tartu high school students' battalion in the War of Liberty, in 1919 commander of the 7th battery of the 2nd artillery regiment. In 1910-1912 and 1915 member of the editorial board of “Postimees”, 1918 editor of "Postimees", in 1920 Editor-in -Chief of “Tallinna Teataja” (Tallinn Gazette), 1924 of “Kaja” (Echo). 1925-1940 managed the Hellema farm in Rae rural municipality near Aruküla, in 1939-1940 Director General of Estonian Phosphate (Eesti Fosforiit, State Enterprise) in Maardu.
1927-1932 Chairman of the Educational Society, in 1928-1933 Chairman of the Estonian Group in the International Union of Parliaments, in 1930-1932 Chief Leader of Young Eagles (youth organisation of Estonian Defence League), in 1930-1935 Chairman of the Estonian- Polish Society, 1932 Chairman of the Chamber of Agriculture, 1924-1940 Assistant Chairman of the Council of Elders of the Defence League, in 1923-1940 Member of the Estonian Olympic Committee, etc.
Honorary member of the Council of Officers of the 2nd Artillery Regiment 1922, of the Estonian-Polish Society from 1929, of the Students’ Unit of the Defence League from 1932, of the Tartu Estonian Farmers' Union from 1936, of the Estonian Voluntary Firemen's Union from 1936, of the Estonain Institute of Natural Resources from 1938; from 1937 honorary citizen of the Rae rural municipality.
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