Heads of State and Heads of Government of the Republic of Estonia
 

Prime Minister of the Provisional Government

24.02.1918, the Provisional Government of the Republic of Estonia was formed by the Order No. 5 of the Salvation Committee (a three-member committee formed by the Estonian Province Assembly as executive body for the time when the activities of the Assembly were hindered) “On the Formation of the Provisional Government”. The Provisional Government was lead by Konstantin Päts, the Chairman of the Council of Ministers and the Minister of Internal Affairs (Riigi Teataja (State Gazette)1918/1919 No. 1). By the Resolution of the Council of Elders of the Land Council from 12.11.1918, the membership of the Provisional Government, led by the Prime Minister and the Minister of Internal Affairs Konstantin Päts, was appointed (Riigi Teataja 1918/1919, No. 1).

24.02.1918-09.05.1919 Konstantin Päts

Prime Minister of the Republic of Estonia

In accordance with the Resolution No. 2 from 09.05.1919 of the Government of the Republic of Estonia, the Government approved on the same day by the Constituent Assembly was named “the Government of the Republic of Estonia“. The Resolution No. 1 from 09.05.1919 appointed Otto Strandman the Prime Minister and the Minister of War (Riigi Teataja 21.05. 1919 No. 30/31).

09.05.1919-18.11.1919 Otto August Strandman
18.11.1919-28.07.1920 Jaan Tõnisson
28.07.1920-30.07.1920 Aadu (Ado) Birk
30.07.1920-26.10.1920 Jaan Tõnisson
26.10.1920-20.12.1920 Ants Piip

The Elder of State of the Republic of Estonia
(Elder of State – a direct translation of the Estonian Riigivanem, the offical title of the Estonian Head of State in 1921–1934.)

According to the Estonian Constitution, which was enforced by the “Constitution of the Republic of Estonia, the Referendum Act and the Citizens’s Initiative Act Implementation Act“ on 02.07.1920, after being approved by the Constituent Assembly on 15.06.1920 (Riigi Teataja 09.08.1920 No. 113/114) the Government of the Republic consisted of the Riigivanem (Elder of State) and Ministers (Section 58). The responsibilities of the Elder of State were representing the Republic of Estonia, administration and co-ordination of the activities of the Government of the Republic, chairing the Government meetings; the Elder of State had the right to make inquiries about the activities of the Ministers (Section 62). The Government of the Republic appointed one of its members the Deputy of the Elder of State.

20.12.1920-25.01.1921 Ants Piip
25.01.1921-21.11.1922 Konstantin Päts
21.11.1922-02.08.1923 Juhan (Johann) Kukk
02.08.1923-26.03.1924 Konstantin Päts
26.03.1924-16.12.1924 Friedrich Karl Akel
16.12.1924-15.12.1925 Jüri Jaakson
15.12.1925-09.12.1927 Jaan Teemant
09.12.1927-04.12.1928 Jaan Tõnisson
04.12.1928-09.07.1929 August Rei
09.07.1929-12.02.1931 Otto August Strandman
12.02.1931-19.02.1932 Konstantin Päts
19.02.1932-19.07.1932 Jaan Teemant
19.07.1932-01.11.1932 Kaarel Eenpalu
01.11.1932-18.05.1933 Konstantin Päts
18.05.1933-21.10.1933 Jaan Tõnisson
21.10.1933-24.01.1934 Konstantin Päts

Prime Minister of the Republic of Estonia in the Duties of the Elder of State

According to the Constitution of the Republic of Estonia Amendment Act, initiated by the citizens initiative and approved by the people on the referendum on October 14, 15, and 16, 1933, (Riigi Teataja 28.10.1933 No. 86 Article 628) which entered into force on the 100th day after the referendum or 24.01.1934, the Elder of State was the representative of the people who executed the highest administrative power in the State. For governing the State, there was by the Elder of State the Government of the Republic (Section 57) appointed by the Elder of State and chaired by the Prime Minister (Section 64). By the Resolution No. 173 from 12.03.1934 (Riigi Teataja 16.03.1934 No. 22 Art 56), Konstantin Päts declared the state of national emergency for 6 months, which was later prolonged. During the state of national emergency, the elections of the Elder of State were not organised and Konstantin Päts as the Prime Minister acted as the Elder of State.

24.01.1934-03.09.1937 Konstantin Päts

The Protector of State of the Republic of Estonia

In accordance with the Period of Transition Act, which was proclaimed 17.08.1937 by Konstantin Päts as Prime Minister in duties of the Elder of State, and entered into force on 03.09.1937 after publication in the Riigi Teataja (03.09.1937 nr 71 art 598) the Prime Minister continued to fulfil his duties in the official status of the Protector of State in duties of the Elder of State until the new Riigikogu had been convened.

03.09.1937-24.04.1938 Konstantin Päts

President of the Republic of Estonia

According to the Constitution of the Republic of Estonia, passed in the General Assembly of the National Assembly on 28.07.1937 and proclaimed by Konstantin Päts as the Prime Minister in the duties of the Elder of State on 17.08.1937, (Riigi Teataja 03.09.1937 nr 71 art 590) the Head of State of the Republic of Estonia was the President of the Republic of Estonia(Chapter 4, Sections 38-47).

24.04.1938-17.06.1940 Konstantin Päts

The Prime Minister of the Republic of Estonia in the Duties of the President

17.06.1940 the Soviet Union occupied the Republic of Estonia. According to Section 46 the Estonian Constitution (Riigi Teataja 03.09.1937 No. 71 Art 590), when the office of the President of the Republic of Estonia is vacant, or the President of the Republic can not perform his duties as in cases as specified by law, the duties of the President were to be performed by the Prime Minister, whereas the duties of the Prime Minister were to be performed by the Deputy Prime Minister. In case both the Prime Minister and his Deputy were incapable of performing the duties of the Prime Minister, they were to be fulfilled by the eldest member of the Government. (Section 52). In 1945, after the death of Jüri Uluots, the eldest member of the Government appointed by Jüri Uluots (with Otto Tief as the Deputy Prime Minister) was August Rei, the Minister of Foreign Affairs, who assumed his position after the death of Jüri Uluots. The Prime Minister in the duties of the President assumed office in the same way until 1992.

17.06.1940-09.01.1945 Jüri Uluots
09.01.1945-29.03.1963 August Rei
30.03.1963-23.12.1970 Aleksander Varma (Warma)
23.12.1970-01.03.1990 Tõnis Kint
01.03.1990-06.10.1992 Heinrich Mark

The President of the Republic of Estonia

06.10.1992 Lennart Meri
07.10.1996 Lennart Meri

 

back | main page

Eesti riigipead Consitution National Symbols Power and Responsibility Resolutions Orders Estonian heads of State The Kadriorg Palace THe Paslepa Residence Other Constitutional Institutions Decorations